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HA 2nd year anatomy note - Study Material HA 2nd year anatomy note

HA anatomy note-Study Material HA 2nd year anatomy note

HA 2nd year anatomy note - Study Material HA 2nd year anatomy note. Anatomy is HA course subject If you want a full note of anatomy download all files.

Nervous System note                                Download FILE

HA 2nd year anatomy noteThe system which controls, regulates and coordinates external and internal body activities called
nervous system.

Functions of the nervous system:

  •  Control, regulates and coordinates body activities
  •  Responds to stimuli within the body and in the external environment.
  • Transmits nerve impulses to and away from the CNS.
  • Interprets nerve impulses arriving in the cerebral cortex of the brain.
  • Assimilates experiences as required in memory, learning, and intelligence.
  • Initiates glandular secretion and muscle contraction. 


Endocrine System Note                           Download FILE

Endocrine System Note

What is the Endocrine System?

The endocrine system consists of endocrine glands widely separated from each other with no direct
anatomical links. They are commonly referred to as the ductless glands because the hormones are secreted and diffuse directly into the bloodstream. A hormone is formed in one organ or gland and carried in the blood to another organ (target organ or tissue), probably quite distant, where it influences cellular activity, especially growth and metabolism. A hormone is a specialized chemical messenger produced and secreted by endocrine cells or glands. The endocrine system consists of a number of distinct glands and some tissues in other organs. Although, the hypothalamus is classified as a part of the brain and not as an endocrine gland it controls the pituitary gland and has an indirect effect on many others.

CVS-Cardiovascular                                 Download FILE  



Location and General Description:

The hollow, four-chambered, muscular heart is roughly the size of a clenched fist. It averages 255 grams in adult females and 310 grams in adult males. The heart is located in the thoracic cavity between the lungs in the middle mediastinum. About two-thirds of the heart is located left of the midline, with its apex, or cone-shaped end, pointing downward and resting on the diaphragm. The apex is about 9 cm away from the midline in left to the left 5th intercostal space. The base of the heart is the broad superior end, where the large vessels attach. It is 12 cm long, 9 cm wide and 6 cm thick. The surfaces of the heart are called :
-anterior surface (sternocostal surface next to sternum and ribs)
-inferior surface ( diaphragmatic surface against diaphragm)
-right and left pulmonary surface
-posterior surface (base)
The coronary sulcus circles the heart, separating the atria from the ventricles. The anterior and
posterior interventricular sulci separate the two ventricles.

Pericardium: *CTEVT

It is the covering of heart which encloses heart and blood vessels inside the protective sac. It is a double-layered membrane. The outer layer is of fibrous connective tissue called fibrous pericardium and an inner layer called serous pericardium. The serous pericardium is divided into outer parietal and inner visceral layer. The cavity between these two layers is called a pericardial cavity and fluid within it is called pericardial fluid.

Blood                                                         Download FILE 

 Blood is liquid connective tissue which is pumped out by heart through different blood vessels.

Functions of blood: *CTEVT

1. It carries O2 from lungs to tissues and CO2 from tissues to lungs.
2. It carries nutrients from the alimentary tract to tissues and cells, wastes to excretory organs.
3. It carries hormones secreted by endocrine glands to their target glands and organs.
4. It carries heat produced in tissues.
5. It contains clotting factors that coagulate blood.
6. It carries protective substances e.g. antibodies to the area of infection.
7. It maintains pH.
8. It maintains water and electrolyte balance.

Properties of Blood:

  •  The total blood volume in an adult is 5 ltr.
  •  8% of total body weight.
  • Arterial blood is bright red.
  • Venous blood is dark red.
  • Warmer than body temperature.
  • pH: 7.35- 7.45
  • Osmotic pressure is 25 mmHg.
  • Specific gravity is 1.045- 1.065
  • Viscosity is 4.5- 5.5

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